Final Fantasy Compendium

Final Fantasy 1
Final Fantasy 2
Final Fantasy 3
Final Fantasy 4
Final Fantasy 5
Final Fantasy 6
Final Fantasy 7
Final Fantasy 8
Final Fantasy 9
Final Fantasy 10/X-2
Final Fantasy 11
Final Fantasy 12
Final Fantasy Mystic Quest
Final Fantasy Tactics
Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within
Final Fantasy Unlimited
Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles

FF1

Garland: A garland is a wreath of flowers worn about the head. They were often bestowed upon great military heroes in ancient Greece, and are also left on the graves of fallen warriors or soldiers. (see also Chaos)

Sara: Hebrew for Princess.

Underhill: "Underhill" was Frodo's short-lived alias at the start of his journey in The Lord of the Rings.

Sarda/Sadda: The Sadda is the main holy scripture of the Zorastrian faith

FF2

Cid: Cid's name was probably inspired by the Spanish story "El Cid". The Tale of El Cid was one told by Spanish minstrels and bards called juglares. It was a well known story throughout Spanish cities and towns as it was told in town squares across the land; each bard had a different interpretation for the tale. It is also believed that there was an actual Cid de Castilla who took the kingdom of Valencia from Moorish rule through certain artifacts that were found in Valencia. Some people claim that they found his two mythical swords La Tizona and La Colada which he used to slay actual Moorish kings. One legend tells that El Cid was killed in a battle with the Moors, but then later was resurrected to help finish the war. This may explain Cid's constant reappearances in each game. In an engine, cylinders displace air. The amount of air displaced used to be given in Cubic Inches Displaced or Cid for short. This actually makes a lot of sense considering Cid is the main main behind airships in the FF series.

Gareth: Gareth was nephew to King Arthur and one of the knights of the Round Table. It's also Anglo-Saxon for "Strong Spear", which fits him nicely.

Hilda: 'Hilda' means "War" in Anglo Saxon, "Battle Maiden" in English, "Fighter" in Swedish, and "Battle Maiden" in Teutonic.

Palamecia, Emperor: Emperor Palpatine from the Star Wars series.

Leon and Ricard: Interesting to note that two main characters of FF2 (in Japan) are 'Ricard' and 'Lionheart'... put them together to get the famous British king from the Middle Ages.

FF3

Cid: See Cid (FF2).

Hein: The Dutch Grim Reaper, "Magere Hein". Since Hein is skeletal, it does make sense.

Jinn: Actually a mythical being who could be summoned to influence mankind (also spelled "djinn"; actually, "djinni" is one and "djinn" is plural). Probably why Ifrit was translated as Jinn in FF4; an ifrit/efreet is a type of djinn. See Summons (Ifrit).

Noah, Archmage: Undoubtedly named after the biblical Noah, who began a new world after the great flood (or Deluge). Delilah is also a biblical name, but seems to have no bearing on this particular character.

Sara: See Sara (FF1).

FF4

Cecil Harvey: Named after former Hanshin Tiger Cecil Fielder, but this probably can't be proven. The name literally means "dim-sighted one". Cecil's last name, Harvey, is old English for 'battleworthy'.

Cid: See Cid (FF2).

Edward: Edward comes from an Olde English name meaning "rich guard". As we see in FF4, Edward is a wealthy prince to tried to protect Anna at any cost. Makes sense. Known as Gilbert in the Japanese version, and this name probably refers to William S. Gilbert, better known in the duo of Gilbert and Sullivan. With the operas "The Mikado", "H.M.S. Pinafore" and "The Pirates of Penzance" under their name, it's not hard at all to see the bard connection.

Kainazzo (NA) / Cagnazzo (JP): A demon from Dante's Inferno. It means, roughly, 'the big Kain'. The Japanese kanji kai (sea) + nazo (mystery). That's coincidental though. Cagnazzo actually means "Dog Nose."

Milon (NA) / Scarmiglione (JP): One of the demons from Dante's Inferno. It lives in Malebolge, the eighth circle of Hell. His name was probably shortened to 'Milon' because of space limitations.

King Giott: The king of the dwarves shares a name with the famous Italian Renaissance artist, Giotto di Bondone.

Kain Highwind: There's a person in the Christian Bible named Cain, similar to FF4's Kain. In the Bible Cain was doomed to be a wanderer, which might be where Kain got his "wandering" loyalties from. Or, as many people have noted, Cain's jealousy for his brother Abel might parallel FF4's Kain's jealousy for Cecil over Rosa. Cain is actually Hebrew for spear, which fits perfectly. Highwind comes from Ricard Highwind (FF2), also a Dragoon. (In FF2 Dawn of Souls, Ricard names his child Kain).

Namingway: Possibly got their names from twentieth-century American writer Ernest Hemingway, with a pun on "Naming", as in "renaming", which is what they do.

Rosa: Means 'rose' in Spanish.

Rubicant: A demon in Canto XXII of Dante's Inferno. His name means "he who grows red"; appropriate for the Fire Fiend.

Rydia: Named after the legendary country of Lydia (the names are the same in Japanese), which was the richest in the world in its day and the first to use coins as money. They once had a king named Croesus, and he's the one they're talking about in the (seldom-heard) expression "as rich as Croesus".

Valvalis (NA) / Barbariccia (JP):, Barbariccia is the leader of the ten demons that Virgil and Dante meet when exploring Hell in Dante's Inferno.

Zemus: May be a cross of Zeus (the most powerful Greek God) and Zemu/Zenu/Xenu/Xemu, an evil interplanatary space warlord who was imprisoned on Earth and nuked a bunch of aliens with bombs billions of years ago, according to certain beliefs of L. Ron Hubbard (Scientology). Consider how Zemus is from another world and has bombed people (not directly, but through the Red Wings).

FF5

Bartz Klauser (NA) / Butz (JP): His last name may come from Klaus, which is German for "hermitage". God knows what that has to do with Bartz, but eh. Klauser is a real word meaning "hermit". The word Butz from the FF5 translation is derived from a Germanic word meaning "sprite" or "spirit". Bartz isn't especially mischievious, but he does inherit the spirit of the crystals, so maybe that relates.

Boko: Bartz's faithful steed, is a pun in Japanese: the characters for Chocobo are "Chi-yo-ko-bo" and for Boko are "bo-ko" - it's just the last two characters of "Chocobo" backwards.

Cid: See Cid (FF2).

Krile (NA) / Cara (JP): Cara means either "beloved" in Italian or "friend" in Gaelic.

Exdeath: This name just means "exceeding death". In the PSX version this was hammered home by naming him "X-death". The Japanese phonetics for ExDeath (e-ku-su-de-su) sound somewhat similar to the word Exodus, possibly signify is migration and freedom from his prison to Bartz's world.

Faris: Faris is Arabic for "Knight", English for "Strong", and Muslim for "Perspicacity" or "Horseman".

Gilgamesh: He was a legendary hero in Mesopotamian culture. In the library of Nineveh, there exist 12 slabs on which are written the exploits of Gilgamesh. The real Gilgamesh ruled Uruk in the 3rd millennium B.C., and later his tale was embellished to the point where Gilgamesh was a hero of legendary magnitude. Supposedly he was rather harsh as king, and so the god Anu created a wild man named Enkidu to stop him. However, Enkidu became the companion and servant of Gilgamesh after the two men had a test of their strength. There are many stories about the two of them; in one, they travel to defeat the forest guardian Humbaba (a. k. a. Huwawa); in another, Gilgamesh rejects a marriage propposal from Ishtar, the love goddess. Later Enkidu dies and Gilgamesh learns the location of a plant that granted eternal youth from Utnaphistim, survivor of the great flood. But a serpent steals it and Gilgamesh dies. The epic ends with the spirit of Enkidu promising to recover the objects that Ishtar gave to Gilgamesh. In FF5, Gilgamesh has a partner named Enkidoh. Humbaba is also known as Phunbaba, probably the origin of the monster from FF6.

Gogo: In the play "Waiting for Godot," there is a character named Estragon, nicknamed Gogo. Vladamir and Estragon spend a lot of time repeating each other (one will ask "Does it hurt?" and the other will respond "Hurt? He wants to know if it hurts!" et cetera), which alludes to Gogo's mimicry. Gogo may be based off of the mythical Ebu Gogo people of Indonesia (the name is now given to a recently discovered tribe of pygmies in the area) who are infamous for mimicking the words of a speaker in a parrot-like fashion.

Lenna (NA) / Reina (JP): The Japanese name of Lenna is Spanish for "queen". Lenna itself might come from the name Lena, which is Greek for "light".

Stella: Latin for "star" (as in English "stellar").

Tycoon, King Alexander Highwind: See Places.

FF6

Baram (NA) / Billy (JP): Baram (from Shadow's dreams) is called Billy in Japanese. Since he's a train robber, maybe his name was inspired by Billy the Kid, famous outlaw from the American Old West? Also Shadow's real name is Clyde, like one half of the famous pair of outlaws "Bonnie and Clyde". Also, in Bret Harte's story The Outcasts of Poker Flat, there was a thief named Billy Setzer (!) who gets kicked out of town.

Celes Chere: Celes's last name is French and means "dear." Her first name could be related to "celestial", or heavenly, which would be in contrast to Terra's "earth". Celes probably got her name from the Roman goddess of grain and harvests, Ceres ("Demeter" in Greek mythology). According to Greek myth, Ceres's habits and work schedules were what caused seasons to happen - her daughter, Persephone, was taken by Pluto to be his wife. Jupiter would allow Persephone to be with Ceres half of the year (between late March and early September) and be with Pluto the other half; therefore, when Persephone was with Ceres, she would be at work and crops would prosper, and when Persephone was with Pluto, Ceres would confine herself to mourning and crops would be affected. Thus, the seasons are created - Spring and Summer when Ceres is at work, and Fall and Winter when Ceres is sequested in mourning.

Chupon: "Chupon" is Spanish for "sucker" - as in an octopus.

Cid: See Cid (FF2).

Cyan Garamonde (NA) / Cayenne Garamonde (JP): Cyan is a light-blue color. In Japan his name was Cayenne, a kind of pepper. "Gare" is French for 'train station', possibly a link to the Phantom Train sequence. "Monde" means 'world' in French. Also there was a famous typesetter named Garamonde. The font named for him is used in Apple's manuals. Maybe the letters he wrote to Laura were typed, hence the name.

Daryl: Her name means "well-loved." Appropriate for her relationship with Setzer.

Duncan: Although a normal English name, it just might be a vague reference to King Duncan from Shakespeare's Macbeth. It means "tough warrior" in Gaelic.

Edgar Rene Figaro: His name is of Teutonic origin. I've seen it defined as either "wealthy gentleman" (he is a king) or "fortunate spear" (the spear is his best weapon) There is also an opera called "Edgar," so he's got a double operatic name. He may be named after Edgar, the elder son of Gloucester in Shakespeare's King Lear. In the play, Edgar disguises himself as the beggar Old Tom, perhaps echoing FF6's Edgar disguising himself as Gerad. As for his last name, the famous opera "The Marriage of Figaro" features music by Mozart. Also note that Edgar and Sabin have middle names: Edgar's is Roni and Sabin's is Rene. Sounds very similar to the legendary brothers Romulus and Remus who founded Rome. Anyone who's played Xenogears should also recognize these names.

Elayne: Elaine was the "Lily Maiden" of Arthurian legend. She was related to several important people (Lancelot, I think, was one) and when she died, she was sent out to sea in a funeral barge. In fact, she is the mother of Galahad in T. H. White's "The Once and Future King".

Gau: This is the sound of a dog's bark in Japanese (like how they have "nyau" instead of "meow"). Back in the times of the Romans, France was known as Gaul. There were tribes of wild men living in the north. They might have been called Gaus, or Gauls.

Gerad: This is almost too obvious to stick in here, but oh well - it's an anagram of "Edgar".

Gestahl (NA) / Ghastra (JP): Well, this name sounds a bit like "gestohlen" or "stahl", both of which mean "stole" in German. (For grammar experts, "gestohlen" is in perfect tense. "Stahl" the noun means steel.) In the Japanese version, his name was Ghastra - probably from the word "ghastly" - but they changed it in the translation.

Gogo: See Gogo (FF5).

Hidon: Now this name is interesting! It's the same in both the Japanese and American games, but has two completely diferent meanings. In the English version, the character Gungho says something about "as his name implies," referring to the word 'hide' embedded in 'Hidon'. In the Japanese version, however, 'Hidon' brings to mind the word 'hidoi', which means 'terrible' or 'scary'. However, "Hidon" is actually "Hidun" in the Japanese version, so unfortunately the hidoi ("cruel") reference is weakened by this, as the "du" is actually an extrememly unnatural sound in Japanese.

Kappa: The kappa of Japanese legend don't wear crowns - the top of their head is a water-filled bowl! If tricked into bowing, they would spill the water and lose their strength! The kappa also display a certain vulnerability. They always return a low bow, and in doing so they spill the water, which empowers them, from the saucer-like depressions in the tops of their heads.

Kefka: Well, his name vaguely resembles that of Czech author Franz Kafka. One of his works is entitled "Metamorphosis", and that's the effect of the Ragnarok esper - "Metamorph". The name of the music track that plays during the statue scene on the Floating Island is called "Metamorphosis". Kefka's last name, Pallazzo, could be also pronouced as the Spanish word 'payaso' (the double L sound in Spanish is pronouced as a y-like sound) which means 'clown'. Perfectly plausible for this villian's appearance. 'Palazzo' is Italian for castle or palace, possibly signifying Kefka's wealth and power.

Locke Cole: Could be named after John Locke, a philospher whose beliefs were instrumental in shaping America's early history. There's also the obvious pun on the word "lock" - you need him to unlock the doors in Narshe - and in that vein, there's a company named "Cole" that produces keys! His Japanese name actually is Lock, although that doesn't preclude the translator from making the connection to John Locke and changing the spelling. The character's name is rather ironic, since John Locke wrote a lot about the justice in acquisition of property rights, and Locke the character's raison d'etre is ignoring all that. Cole means 'kale' which is a slang for money, which is exactly the kind of thing a thief would be after.

Madonna: Aside from being the name of the singer, Madonna is actually an old Italian word used as a form of respectful address of a lady. In addition, it is often used to describe the virgin Mary. Note that Mary, being the mother of Jesus, is parallel to FF6's Madonna, being the mother of Terra.

Maduin: Mael Duin is a major hero of Irish Mythology. Son of Ailill, he was raised by nuns after his father was killed by raiders. When told his father's story, Mael Duin sets out with sixteen warriors to avenge his death, and his subsquesent voyages have been called the "Irish Odyssey." This may come from the Gaelic word "madain", meaning "morning".

Owain: Uwain was one of Arthur's knights and a king in the English legends. He was Gawain's brother and he ruled the kingdom for a time. A famous 15th-century Lord named Owain Glyndwr (Owned Glendower in English) led a revolt against the English in Wales around 1400.

Rachel: In the Bible, Rachel was the wife of Jacob and whose relationship with that man was scorned upon by Rachel's father, much as Rachel's father in FF6 forbids Locke to see Rachel. A neat parallel.

Ramuh: See Ramuh (Summon).

Sabin Rene Figaro: His name is of Italian origin. It comes from the Sabine tribe. According to legend, the Roman settlers kidnapped all of the Sabine women. (That part has nothing to do with Sabin.) The name is more common in Europe in the feminine form, Sabine. His middle name, Rene, means "reborn" and is also more common in the feminine form. Also there was a biologist named Sabin, who was responsible for curing a muscle virus. And Sabin's muscles look pretty tough, right? In the Japanese version his name is Mash, which probably refers to his ability to mash his opponents into a pulp. Sabin's name might actually be Matthew in Japanese (it's spelled the same as Mash). Also note that Edgar and Sabin have middle names: Edgar's is Roni and Sabin's is Rene. Sounds very similar to the legendary brothers Romulus and Remus who founded Rome. Anyone who's played Xenogears should also recognize these names.

Setzer Gabbiani: "Setzer" by itself means "typesetter" (hardly a meaningful name). But the German expression used when betting on numbers or horses is "setzen"! For example, "10 Mark auf Nummer 23 setzen" means "bet 10 Marks on number 23". So "Setzer" could imply "the one who puts down the money -> "gambler"; though I've never heard the word "Setzer" used to mean "gambler".

Siegfried: Named for the hero of the legendary German tale of the Ring of the Nibelung (this was the story upon which Gareth Wagner based his opera, which contains many famous music pieces including "The Ride of the Valkyries"). Here's a short summary of Siegfried's story: The god Wotan (aka the very familiar Odin) wanted to reclaim the Ring of the Nibelung and tried to use the hero Siegfried to do it. Siegfried's body was invulnerable except for his shoulder blades, and he could talk to animals. He was born and raised in a forest and proved his heroism by killing Fafner, the evil dragon. The sword he used was made by a dwarf named Regin, and the idea that dwarves make the best weapons (which frequently pops up in these games) came from this mythology. But he ends up getting killed and his beloved Brunnhilde kills herself in the end. (That's in one version of the story; in another, he and Brunnhilde survive Ragnarok and repopulate the world.) Incidentally, Siegfried literally means "victory" (Sieg) and "peace" (Friede).

Terra (NA) / Tina (JP): Her name means "earth". Could have something to do with her being the link between the Earth and the Esper world...? But also, there was a building named "Terra Firm" located just outside the Square offices in Washington... maybe Ted Woolsey looked out the window and thought, "Hmmm....? In the Japanese version her name is Tina, which is a very exotic name in Japan, but common in the U.S., hence the need for a change. There's a famous midieval Spanish book called La Celestina. That's Celes + Tina. Terra's esper background may be explained in that the Latin 'tera' means 'monster'.

Vicks and Wedge: The two soldiers from the Empire, are characters in the famous 1977 George Lucas film "Star Wars". Vicks is a mistranlsation of Biggs as in Biggs Darklighter. Wedge refers to Wedge Antilles. They're both pilots for the rebel alliance. Vicks was translated back to Biggs in subsequent appearances.

Ultros (NA) / Orthros (JP): Ultros is a mistranslation of "Orthros", a two-headed dog in Greek mythology owned by Geryon who was slain by Hercules during one of his Labors. This would explain his association with Chupon - Orthros was one of the sons of Typhon in Greek mythology. Of course, how they got a nutty purple octopus from a two-headed dog is anyone's guess.

Vargas: "Varg" is Swedish for "wolf". Vargas could be named after Getúlio Vargas, who was a brazilian dictator from 1930 to 1945. and later bacame the brazilian president in 1952 and comitted suicide in 1954.

Yura: Just a nickname for "Yuri", a popular Russian male name.

FF7

Aeris Gainsborough: Officially, Square has said that Aerith (Aeris's Japanese name) was meant to sound like the word 'Earth', which illustrates her connection to Planet and it's lifestream. In translation, the last character in her name, 'su', can be translated with an 's' sound or a 'th' sound. The translators chose the former. Other connections include that the Latin word 'aeris' translates into 'air; atmosphere; cloud; aether'. This also seems to be an allusion to Aeris's connection to nature and her importance to the planet. Her first Limit Break is 'Healing Wind'. The translation 'cloud' implies that there is some kind of mystical connection between Aeris and Cloud Strife; like Cait Sith says, they are 'made for each other'. 'Aerith' is an anagram of 'I Earth' The word Aeris is pronounced similarly to 'heiress', which aptly illustrates Aeris' role as the last Cetra and the rightful heir to the planet. (NOTE: 'Sora', the name of the main character in Kingdom Hearts, who many have posited looks like a combination of Cloud and Aeris, means 'sky') There is a minor goddess in greek mythology named Eris, pronounced 'air-ies' What's more, Eris is Ares's sister and companion, thus bringing her closer to Aeris' name. Finally and the real trick: Eris is the goddess of strife! So Aeris is one letter extra from having the same name as the Greek goddess of strife." And Cloud's last name is Strife, isn't it? Aerith is ancient Greek for "divine one". Gainsborough may be named after Thomas Gainsborough, an 18th-century English painter. 'Erith' is a Hebrew word for flower. Aeris is a flower girl so it so suits her.

Azul the Cerulean: Azul is Spanish for "blue." Cerulean is a purplish shade of blue. (This makes him 'Blue the Blue'?)

Barret Wallace: Could be a reference to the 13th century Scottish rebel William Wallace a.k.a. Braveheart (yes, the one in the movie). After all, both are leaders of an uprising against a tyrant government. Also, both of them are fighting to avenge their dead wives. There's a brand of firearms made by a company called Barret. Fitting for a man with a gun on his arm, don't you think? If you were to look in the Guiness Book of World Records, 2002 edition, hardcover, there is something called the 'Barret Hand', which was, at the time, the most technologically advanced robotic hand. 'Barret' also means 'dispute' in Middle English. Other dictionary sites of say it means "bear-like", as in strength.

Biggs: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6)

Bugenhagen: Johannes Bugenhagen (1485-1558) was one of the 'founding fathers' of the early Protestant church in Europe and a close friend of Martin Luther. He helped organizing the Reformation in Northern Germany and Scandinavia and became a famous theologian and scholar as well as an expert in matters of public education and social questions. Bugenhagen's name illustrates his wisdom and his reputation as a man who is master of both religious lore and science/technology. It seems that Bugenhagen is the name of a blind priest in the famous horror movie 'The Omen.' Bugenhagen warns the main character of his adoptive son's Satanic origins and how the world is in if he is allowed to live.

Cait Sith: (pronounced, roughly, 'kett shih') is Irish. It means 'fairy cat' in Gaelic. Supposedly, it's a kind of spirit that brings good luck. The name is of Gaelic origin and translates into 'fat cat'. In Irish fairy-tales, Cait Sith is the protagonist of countless 'King of the Cats' stories. That's why Cait Sith in FF7 is carrying a crown.

Chekhov: One of the bosses in Yuffie's pagoda, who were all named after famous dead writers. Anton P. Chekhov is famous for his many plays and short stories.

Cid: See Cid (FF2). Highwind comes from Kain (FF4) and Ricard (FF2) Highwind, who were both dragoons, like Cid.

Cloud Strife: Both 'cloud' and 'strife' are English words. Cloud's first name alludes to his mysterious, unclear past and his unpredictable development in the future: his memory is 'clouded', he has his 'head in the clouds' and no one knows what his next move will be. In nature, clouds do not move by themselves but are driven by the wind. Likewise, Cloud's development is influenced by others rather than by his own decision. At first, Sephiroth is controlling him; later, it is Tifa who has to show him his true nature. 'Strife' illustrates Cloud's aggressive behavior towards others, as well as his inner fight that is the central conflict of the story. In the last duel between Cloud and Sephiroth, this fight finds its conclusion.

Don Corneo: 'Corneo' is Latin for 'made of horn' or 'horny' (sic!). The name Don Corneo also bears a vague resemblance to Don Corleone from The Godfather.

Dyne: Since Corel is a mining town, Dyne's name may simply come from the word 'dynamite' which is often used in mining.

Elena: An alternate form of Eleanor, meaning light. Perhaps because she has blonde hair?

Godo: Yuffie's father and the last boss in the pagoda. This may be a stretch, but he could be named after Godot from Samuel Beckett's 'Waiting for Godot'.

Gorky: One of the bosses in Yuffie's pagoda, who were all named after famous dead writers. Maxim Gorky was a Russian author and prominent socialist who wrote much about his poltiical beliefs.

Heidegger: Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) was a famous German philosopher best known for his existentialist theories. Also, during World War II, there was a Wehrmacht general called Heidegger. Maybe Shin-Ra's Heidegger was modeled after the Wehrmacht general. I don't know much about the general, but if he was part of the nazi war machinery, he most likely committed war crimes. Some of Martin Heidegger's existentialist theories could have influenced the authors of FF7. It would take too long to explain this in detail, but if you are interested in Heidegger's works, simply do a Yahoo! search. Nathaniel Hawthorne (an early American writer, who wrote the Scarlet Letter) wrote a short story called Dr. Heidegger's Experiment, about a doctor who discovers the Fountain of Youth and brings it to his old friends to try out; the effects turn out to be fleeting, however.

Hojo: Better written as "Houjou" (though the pronounciation is the same to American ears, much like Tokyo vs. Toukyou), the kanji used are [Takara] ("Treasure") and [Jou/Eda] ("Branch"). In short, like most Japanese family names, Houjou doesn't have much more meaning than a surname like "Roberts." The power-related 'hojo' is a different word. The name may also mean "support" or "help", which may fit his role as the one who aids Sephiroth. Goes back to a family of hereditary regents to the shogunate of Japan who exercised actual rule from 1199 to 1333. During that period, nine successive members of the family held the regency. The Hojo took their name from their small estate in the Kanogawa Valley in Izu Province. Hojo = power.

JENOVA: The Hebrew name of God is Jehovah. The last two syllables of JENOVA, 'nova', translate into 'new'. JENOVA is a 'new god', or wants to become one. She's an usurper trying to rob the powers of the planet.

Lucrecia Crescent: Lucrecia was a woman who was raped by Tarquinius, the last Roman king. 'The Rape of Lucrece' is a poem by Shakespeare based on this. This is a strong allusion to the way Lucrecia conceives her child, Sephiroth. Either Hojo raped her (which the story does not necessarily suggest) or the name is just intended to show that Hojo's experiment are 'a rape of nature', an unnatural act.

Nanaki: Remove the last letter from that name and you are left with Nanak, the historical figure who is considered the founder of Sikhism, a religion of the Indian subcontinent fusing Hinduist and Muslim belief systems. All the more interestingly, Nanak was an Indian, a "true" Indian, and Red XIII, son of Seto and Cosmo Canyon, ecological warrior, wearer of headdresses, is clearly too meant to symbolize the "Indian" native peoples of North America, stereotypically viewed as scrupulous protectors of their land and devoted praisers of their forebears.

Nero the Sable: Nero in Finnish means "genius." In Italian, it means "inky." In Japanese, it means "sound." The Italian meaning makes the most since, since sable is a dark brown or black color. Nero was also the name of a famous Roman Emperor.

Palmer: A Palmer makes a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In the Bible Israel is referred to as both the Holy Land and the Promised Land. This makes sense because he works for Shinra, who seek the Promised Land.

Reeve Tuesti: An English word meaning: 1. The local representative of the king in a shire until the early 13th century. 2. (In medieval England) A manorial steward who supervised the daily affairs of the manor. 3. (In Canadian government) A president of a local council, especially in a rural area. 4. (Formerly) A minor local official. I think that most of these descriptions match up with Reeve's position. He's the representative for the Urban Development area for Midgar, under President Shinra who is more or less the 'King' of Midgar. He supervises the day-to-day running of the city, he's the president of the 'local council' of Urban Development and as such is a minor local official.

Reno: 'Leno' is Latin for 'brothel keeper', 'squanderer' or 'pimp' (the letters R and L are monophone in Japanese).

Rosso the Crimson: Rosso in German means "horse." In French, it means "vicious." In Dutch, it means "to ride recklessly." In Italian, it means "red-colored." In Russian, it means "wolverine." One can easily see the French and Italian connections. Rosso is definitely vicious, and her title is "the Crimson."

Rude: English Synonym for 'impolite'. Rude doesn't like to socialize and isn't very talkative at all, so the name befits him quite well.

Rufus: Latin for 'the red one'. Rufus has red hair.

Scarlet: A bright shade of red. She wears a red dress. This also suggests a connection to Rufus.

Sephiroth: This name derives from the Kabbala, a religious lore that has its origins in Jewish mysticism: 'At the Creation,' explains Kabbalist spokesman Steve Edelman, 'God sent out a pulse of energy into the void. It presently branched and sorted into ten distinct spheres or aspects, corresponding to the numbers 1-10. These are known as the Sephiroth. To return to God, the soul must negotiate each of the Sephiroth, from ten back to one. Armed with magic and faith, Kabbalists have set out to conquer the Sephiroth. Many Kabbalist secrets have to do with making the trip successfully. 'Now the Sephiroth fall into a pattern, which is called the Tree of Life. It is also the body of God. Drawn among the ten spheres are 22 paths. Each path corresponds to a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and also to one of the cards called 'Major Arcana' in the Tarot. 'Some Sephiroth are active or masculine, others passive or feminine. But the Tree itself is a unity, rooted exactly at the Bodenplatte. It is the axis of a particular Earth, a new dispensation, brought into being by the Great Firing.' (Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon, p. 753) The character Sephiroth tries to become a god by destroying the planet, hence the religiously connoted name. Also, Kabbalists believe that mastering the Tree of Life is a method to achieve divine enlightenment, and that's basically what Hojo wants Sephiroth to do ("Ha, ha, ha...... Go beyond the powers of science...Before your presence, science is powerless..."). The 'Great Firing' that brings a new world into being reminds us of the Nibelheim accident where Sephiroth becomes insane. (seh-fee-rowth) has a great origin! It's Hebrew for 'numbers' and is directly related to Arabic 'sifra', French 'chiffre', German 'Ziffer', and English 'cipher'. (Sanskrit 'shunya' meaning 'void', originally.) In Hebrew (among other alphabets), each letter has a numerical value, and the art of adding the letters in a word or phrase to get a certain value is called 'gematria'. In Hebrew, the word Sephiroth has the value of 756; in Greek, 894. Can anyone find any significance in these numbers? I was hoping to relate them to the safe combination in the Shinra Mansion, but they don't seem to work. Here are the ten important Sephiroth:

(There are variations on these; this list is from 777 and the Cabalistic Writings of Aleister Crowley.) Note: Chokhmah, Binah, and Gedulah are typically not in the list. The "Kh" and "Ch" sounds are both pronounced like a hard "ch" as in "Bach". The Sephiroth are, depending on who you ask, the steps between man and God, or the different ways with which God manifests His will on earth. Either way, it fits nicely with Sephiroth's quest for godhood.
  • The final enemy, Safer Sephiroth, is a mistranslation of Sepher Sephiroth, which means 'the book of countings' in Hebrew. (No book of the Judeo/Christian Bible is actually called that, though there is one in the Catholic Bible.) Maybe the name also has something to do with all the little numbered black clones that are skulking around in Nibelheim. Numbers appear at the bottom of the screen after Sephiroth's Supernova attack. There was probably a mistranslation of the word "Seraph", a type of six-winged angel (also the highest in the angelic echelon, which is fitting for where Sephiroth's aspirations place him).

    Seto: Japanese for "hidden" or "back door".

    Shake: One of the bosses in Yuffie's pagoda, who were all named after famous dead writers. Shake is possibly an allusion to Shakespeare.

    Tifa Lockheart: 'Tiferet' is the central aspect of the Tree of Life (see Sephiroth). Lockheart is composed of the English words 'to lock' and 'heart'. The sefirot Tiferet represents beauty, balance and love- a description that applies fairly well to the role of the character, Tifa. Also, Tifa is the one who saves Cloud through her love and Christian Kabbalists believe that Tiferet symbolizes self-sacrifice and 'the will to carry one's neighbor's cross'. On Tarot cards, Tiferet is pictured as a heart (as in Lockheart!), and sometimes as an angel (Tifa's bar is called the 'Seventh Heaven' and her last Limit Break is the 'Final Heaven'). Her surname, Lockheart, illustrates her natural shyness and inability to express her love for Cloud. And the key to Cloud's past is 'locked' in her 'heart'.

    Vincent Valentine: The Latin verb 'vincere' translates into 'to conquer, outlast, defeat'; St. Valentine is a Christian Saint protecting lovers. 'To outlast' would be the most fitting translation for 'vincere' since Vincent sleeps in the basement of the Shin-Ra Manor for almost thirty years. Vincent's sub-plot with Lucrecia is a tragic love story, hence his surname.

    Wedge: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6)

    Weiss: In the game, Weiss's name is pronounced much like "vice." In German, the letter "w" is pronounced as "v." When translated from German, it means white. Originally, this name would have been written "Weiß."

    Yuffie Kisaragi: The prefix 'euphe' in Old Greek translates into 'joy', 'happiness' I don't think it's too much of a stress to say that Yuffie is a lively, outgoing or downright goofy character, so the name suits her well. Kisaragi is Japanese for 'second month of the lunar calendar'. This may or may not be considered the month of February.

    Zack: Zack (short for Zachariah) "means 'Jehova hath remembered.' Therefore this can be linked with JENOVA and Cloud, considering Zack's memories and dreams had collided with his own thanks to the help of JENOVA.

    FF7: Before Crisis

    Tierce, Kyeneugh, Kanos: Minor characters in Star Wars.

    Yishay: Yishay is the father of David.

    Sebastian: A saint in the bible.

    FF8

    Adel: German for "noble".

    Aki, Instructor: Japanese for autumn or fall.

    Angelo: Rinoa's dog. Perhaps named after Michelangelo? Plus the "angel" part fits in nicely with Rinoa's "Angel Wing" Sorceress ability.

    Biggs: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6).

    Caraway, General:: A caraway is a type of white flower/herb. Nick Caraway is the exact same name of the narrator in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby.

    Cid Kramer: See Cid (FF2). Kramer may have come from a movie "Kramer vs. Kramer" which alludes to the fact that Cid is ironically fighting his wife Edea.

    Edea Kramer: A cross between "Eden" (as in Garden of Eden) and "dea", Latin for "goddess" - sort of a reference to her having created the SeeDs. It may be based on Medea. In Greek mythology, Medea was a princess and sorceress of Colchis who helped Jason obtain the Golden Fleece from her father, lived as his consort, and killed their children as revenge for his infidelity. This might have something to do with her being taken over by Ultimecia and trying to kill the Orphanage gang who in a sense were her own children.

    Fujin and Raijin: Means "wind god" and "thunder god", respectively. This explains Fujin's absorption of wind attacksand Raijin's absorption of lightning attacks. Raijin was also the Japanese name of one of Edge's (FF4) ninja magic spells. According to some legend, Raijin and Fujin were originally demons who opposed the gods. The great Buddha ordered his army to capture them. After a severe battle between the two demons and 33 gods, the demons were captured and converted. Fujin is the Japanese god of the wind, and one of the eldest Shinto gods. He was present at the creation of the world and when he first let the winds out of his bag, they cleared the morning mists and filled the space between heaven and earth so the sun shone. He is portrayed as a terrifying dark demon wearing a leopard skin, carrying a large bag of winds on his shoulders. This sounds a lot like Pandemona.

    Irvine Kinneas: Similar to Irwin/Irving, both of which mean "handsome" or "beautiful" in the British dialects. FF creator Hironobu Sakaguchi had been spending a good amount of time at Square's offices in Costa Mesa, CA. During his visits he came to really fall for two neighboring towns: Laguna Beach and Irvine. It was said that he liked them so much that he insisted on naming two characters from the upcoming FF8 after them.

    Laguna Loire: Laguna means lagoon in Spanish. Loire is a river in France. Laguna also comes from the word Ragnarok, a sword used throughout the series and a spaceship in this game. Those who don't speak Japanese may be in the dark until they find out that Ragnarok spelled out in Japanese is "la-gu-na-ro-ku". FF creator Hironobu Sakaguchi had been spending a good amount of time at Square's offices in Costa Mesa, CA. During his visits he came to really fall for two neighboring towns: Laguna Beach and Irvine. It was said that he liked them so much that he insisted on naming two characters from the upcoming FF8 after them.

    Hyne: See Hein (FF3)

    Piet: The head of the Esthar space program. There's an Admiral Piett in Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back.

    Quistis Trepe: No clue about Quistis, most likely from Quistia. An ancient witch who cursed a manour in Lancashire. She said if another woman lives in the house she will never be happy with a man. The curse is true to this day. Trepe may come from the word "trepidation", which basically means nervousness - a state many students find themselves in when around her.

    Raine: Probably just means 'rain', but could also be a mistranslation of Rhine, a river in France (see Laguna).

    Rinoa Heartilly: "Rinoa" is a katakana form of the name "Lenore", which is linguistically very feasible, especially since the name is a French form of "Eleanor", which means "light". "Light" contrasts sharply with the dark, brooding Squall.

    Seifer Almasy: Just a coincidence, probably, but in Hebrew this word has the same root as Sephiroth. Seifer's name is pronounced "sigh-fur". "Sigh-fur" is pronounced the same way as the word "cypher" (cipher), which means "zero" or "one having no influence or value; a nonentity." In the game, Seifer was a pawn, a puppet that was being used by Edea/Ultimecia to fulfill their needs. Although he believed he was important as the sorceress's knight, he was in fact just an expendeble pawn with no real value to the sorceresses. Also since Seifer is a German name that I believe is associated with the Teutonic Order, you can draw comparisons between Seifer's Blood Cross symbol and the cross-shaped insignia of the Teutonic Order, which also worn on the sleeves of the Teutonic Knights.
    An uncomfirmed e-mail from Strom 4 says that there's actually a type of cactus called the 'seifer almasy'. Can anyone to confirm this?

    Squall Leonheart: A squall has a few meanings in English: a sudden storm at sea, a scream, or trouble of any kind. I think Square meant for him to sound like someone who enters your life and then leaves it, like a sea storm. Leonheart is close to Leon; either a reference to his lion symbol, Griever (the music for the final battle is also called "Maybe I'm A Lion") or the character Leon from FF2. 'Leonhart' is the proper romanization of Leon's name in the Japanese version, so Squall's last name probably is a reference to Leon (though Squall's the only one with all the lion imagery) -- FF Origins's translators obviously noticed as well, as "Leon" was Squall's alias in Kingdom Hearts. See also Leon/Lionheart (FF2).
    Note about Laguna/Raine/Squall connections: In the game, the evidence suggests that Squall is the son of Laguna and Raine. These three names all involve weather/water related phenomenom that correspond to their personalities: Laguna - lagoon, Squall - storm, Raine - rain.

    Ultimecia: It's root, 'ultimate', means 'final' or 'last', which connects with the fact that she is the most powerful sorceress at the end of time. See also Ultima (misc). It may also come from Artemis, the Greek goddess of the moon. In Greek mythology, Artemis was part of the triple goddess (along with Selene and Hecate) associated with the moon, women, and witchcraft. Hecate in particular was considered the goddess of witchcraft and magic. However, her name could also be derived from the name Artemisia, the queen of Caria who spent her life building the great Mausoleum to her beloved dead husband. The mausoleum at Halicarnassus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

    Wedge: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6).

    FF9

    Amarant Coral (NA) / Salamander Coral (JP): Amaranth (poetically, 'amarant') is a flower. The original Greek means 'everlasting'. It was imaginary and was supposed to never fade, but now several species of flowers are called amaranths. It can also mean 'purple'. "Amaranth" was a name for Red Dye #2 (That's the toxic one). This could be the reason for Amarant's disturbing personality and hair color. Amarant's Japanese name is Salamander. His nickname "The Flaming Amarant (Salamander)" makes more sense with the Japanese name since salamanders are considered to be elemental creatures born of flame in many medieval lores.

    Baku: In Japan, it is said that nightmares are caused by evil spirits. If one was troubled by nightmares, one could call upon Baku, the devourers of dreams, to take away one's nightmares, and turning one's nightmares into good fortune. It also seems to be related to Bacchus. Basically, the Greek Bakhou corresponds to the Roman Bacchus. And there was actually a theatre called the Theatre of Bacchus in Rome. Another origin maybe that in Japanese, Bakuhatsu means "explosion", and "baku" means "boom, blast". This might make sense because the first thing Baku does is burst onto the scene with a massive sneeze.

    Black Waltz: may have been named after a movie called Les Trois Valses (The Three Waltzes), which was based on the opera Drei Walzer.

    Bobby Corwen: The first syllables of the two names equal "Bo Co", the name of the main chocobo in FF5 and FF8.

    Beatrix: Probably named after Beatrice, the strong female lead in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. There are some similarities in her relationship with Benedick as Beatrix's relationship with Steiner. In the beginning, they seem not to like each other much - they're competitive, but by the end, they fall for each other. The name itself comes from the Latin for "bringer of joy"; Beatrice is the Italian version of it.

    Brahne: In Hinduism, Brahma, or Brahm, is the ruler of all the divine essence. The other gods are manifistation of this essence. Brahne tries to conquer the world so she may have a connection.

    Cid Fabool IX: See Cid (FF2). See Fabul (FF4).

    Cinna: This is actually the name of not one, but TWO characters from Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar". One is a conspirator to assassinate Caesar, the second is a poet who is mistaken for the first one and lynched.

    Dr. Tot: Tot is a French word for 'early'. Tot bears resemblance to Thoth, the Egyptian god of magic and wisdom in both name and physical appearance in that both characters are anthropomorphic birds.

    Eiko Carol: Eiko is a common Japanese name that means "a splendid child; long-lived child". It also means "variation in life".

    Freya: The Norse god of love. Freya was Odin's wife, and helped him devour the souls of the dead. Freya (or sometimes Freyja in old Norse) was a goddess of love, riches, and witches. Freya was Queen of the Valkyries, and was very strong-willed and independant. Several people have e-mailed me to say that the above were getting Freya mixed up with Frigg (aka Frigga), mainly because both of them are godesses of beauty/love. Freya was apparently also the goddess of seers and prophecies. First, in one legend, Odin disappeared and Freya mourned crying tears of gold. This is similar to Freya's mourning over her loss of Fratley. Freya also had a feathered cloak that allowed her to fly and jump great distances much like Freya's Dragoon abilities. Also, Freya's brother, Freyr, was the God of Rains and Sun. This possibly relates to the gloomy weather of Burmecia and the sunny weather of Cleyra.

    Garland: See Garland (FF1).

    Garnet Til Alexandros XVIII: A reddish semiprecious gem. Since Dagger's real name is Sarah and she arrives on a boat at Madain Sari, it seems to be very akin to the arrival of Christ's daughter, Sarah to France on another wooden boat. This theory is presented in the book "Holy Blood, Holy Grail" by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, and Henry Lincoln. See also Alexander (Summon).

    Hilda: See Hilda (FF2).

    Kuja: Kuja is a Hindu god. The name means "son of the earth" (note that Terra means "earth" as well). Kuja is also known in Hinduism as the equivalent of Mars, the Red Planet in some astrology teachings, also fitting considering that is Terra.

    Lani: Her name means "sky" or "heaven" in Hawaiian.

    Leo and Cornelia: From the play at the start, sound remarkably like King Lear and his daughter Cordelia, from Shakespeare's "King Lear".

    Marcus: He's in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (see also Cinna).

    Mikoto: Japanese for "life" or "angel". It also means "the spoken word of a ruler". 'Mikoto' can also be Japanese for "lord" or "prince".

    Necron: The prefix 'necro-' means of or pertaining to death. Also, his name in the Japanese version was "Ein no Yami", or "Eternal Darkess". He calls himself the "darkness of eternity" in his speech in the U.S. version.

    Puck:: The name of a mischievous spirit from Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream".

    Quina Quen: Quina's name is a play on words in that Quina is Japanese for "to eat" and Quen is Japanese for 'cannot eat' or 'inedible'.

    Sara: See Sara (FF1).

    Steiner, Adelbert: Adelbert may be from Teutonic origins and be composed from "adel - noble" and "bert - bright; noble heritage". "Stein" is German for "stone" or "jewel" and is essentially just a common German name. Several people have added that the name could come from a beer stein, which is a closed mug with a shape slightly similar to Steiner's helmet.

    Stilztkin: Probably named after Rumpelstiltzkin, a legendary dwarf who could spin thread into gold (Stiltzkin's coat is a bright yellow).

    Vivi: Probably based on the latin word for "life" - in vivo, in vitro, etc., which makes sense considering the character's philosophical strugg with his own existence. Literally it means "to be alive". The name may also be "VIVI", or Roman numerals for "66". However, in proper form, Roman numerals for 66 would actually be "LXVI". Plus, Vivi was a prototype, so his number would be "I" if any.

    Zidane Tribal: Comes from "gitan" (a french word meaning gypsy) and "tzigane" (this one also exists in English). Gypsys are much like thieves, so it fairly fits for FF9's main character. Also Tribal alludes to how the gypsys live (in tribes), and Zidane is also living with a band. Several people think it is parallel to a popular French soccer player, Zinedine Zidane, made infamous from headbutting another player. This is very unlikely though, as there is no other evidence. The words "Lazier Bandit" are an anagram of "Zidane Tribal". Probably not at all relevant, yet a fun and striking coincidence.

    FF10/X-2

    Auron: May be a Celtic name which combines 'aur' (gold) and 'on' (a divine ending or death). Aurum is Latin for "gold". The name is similar to Aaron, Moses' brother, from the Bible. The name "Auron" sounds very similar to "aura" and "aurora", both words with Latin roots related to dawning and light, and with a sort of ghostly, ethereal sense to them. Makes sense when you consider the fact that he's an unsent, a ghostly being made of light and pyreflies.

    Belgemine: In Japanese, can translate to 'mountain peak' ('berugu' meaning mountain, and 'mine' meaning peak or ridge). Mountains are viewed as a connection between the two worlds (of Heaven and Earth), and Belgemine is caught between two worlds, being that she's unsent.

    Biggs: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6).

    Calli: Her Japanese name is Hikari which means "light".

    Cid: See Cid (FF2).

    Gandof: The summoner who long ago defeated Sin and built the towers in Thunder Plains and solved the Cactuar stone mystery. Gandof is likely a nod to Gandalf in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings.

    Kimahri: Kimahri comes from the 66th spirit of the Goetia with different names like Cimeies, Cimejes and Kimaris. This spirit can also discover lost/hidden things and treasures. In Japanese, Kimari means 'settlement', 'conclusion', 'regulation', 'rule', and 'custom'.

    Leblanc: French for "the white".

    Logos (NA) / Sano (JP): Pre-Socratic philosophy holds that "logos" is the principle governing the cosmos, the source of this principle, and human reasoning about this principle. Also means "the word of God", and Logos originally worked for the Yevonites, so it fits. Logos's name in Japan is Sano, which means 'left-brain'.

    Lulu: Meaning "famous warrior maiden". Also, according to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 'lulu' was an early 20th century term used to described a woman with unique talents or ability. Lulu's looks and names may have been inspired by silent film star Louise Brooks (see more info).

    Ormi (NA) / Uno (JP): Uno means 'right-brain' in Japanese.

    Seymour Guado: Seymour is derived from several variations of a saint's name called Saint Maritius/Maurus, etc, which fits due to the fact he is a Maester of their religion. However, the French equivalent is Saint Mortez, which is even more relevant as Mort is French/Latin for death, also fitting Seymour's intentions. The origins for his different forms all mean something in Latin. Solus (the very first battle, I've seen it mentioned in places) means alone, ignored, which fits considering his circumstances. Natus links to the idea of birth (nativity, naitre is French for to be born) which is ironic considering he just died, and this transformation could be considered as a rebirth. Flux means change, but also links to flowing, leaking of water. Omnis means "everyone, everything, the Universe". Relevant considering at this point he plans on becoming Sin and killing/becoming one with everything. As for his hench monster, MortiBody and Mortiorchis, these mean 'Dead Body' and 'Dead Plant' ('mortis' meaning 'death, corpse') ('orchis' means orchid, esp. of fleshy stem and having spike, which kinda fits considering the look of the thing). The Japanese name for Mortiorchis translated closer to Mortivessel. Quite fitting since if you look you can see Seymour Natus inside Mortivessel.

    Shinra: See Shinra (Misc).

    Sin: Obviously derived from the word 'sin', originally Old English meaning 'immoral act to violate divine law'. This fits with the theme of sacrifice, religious atonement, and corruption of divine power prevalent in the story.

    Tidus: Tidus (which is pronounced Ti-da in the Japanese version, not Tee-dus or Tide-us) is from the Ryukyu (Okinawan) dialect of Japanese, and means "sun". It comes from the honorific once used to refer to an Okinawan king: Tidanukwa, or Tedako in Japanese, which means, "child of the sun". This also makes sense because the Sun Sigil and Sun Crest are items needed to complete his celestial weapon. It does not come from the word "tide".

    Vidina: The Al Bhed word for 'future'.

    Wakka: "Water" in the Ainu language, spoken on the Japanese island of Hokkaido.

    Wedge: See Vicks and Wedge (FF6).

    Yu Yevon: "Yuu" is Japanese for "the spirit of the dead or afterlife; secret, obscure, or secluded" Others say it comes from the word "possession". In Japanese, Yevon was "Ebon". This has nothing to do with 'ebony', but is in fact based on the Hebrew Name of G-d, the Tetragrammaton. In English, this is known to be "Jehovah" or "Yahweh". An approximate transcription of the Hebrew Name would be "Yehovah". In Japanese, it is "Ehoba". If we were to restore the proper consanants in place, we get: Ehoba = Yehova and Ebon = Yevon

    Yuna: "Yuna" (Yuu-na) is also from the Ryukyu dialect, and means "night," and also refers to the hibiscus flower, which is called "yuna" because of the fact that it is more open at night than during the day. This flower also decorates Yuna's outfit and jewelry. Also, Yuna sounds like "luna" the latin word for moon. Yuna's items for her celestial weapon are the Moon Crest and Moon Sigil.

    Yunalesca: The suffix "lesca" may come from the name Leska, which means "defender of mankind" in Greek. In the story, Yuna is named after Yunalesca.

    Zaon: Zaon, Yunalesca's husband, is an ancient name for the sun in Sanskrit. The relationship between Zaon (sun) and Yunalesca (moon) parallels that between Tidus (sun) and Yuna (moon).

    FF11

    Cid: See Cid (FF2).

    Ma'at: See Misc.

    Promathia: See Prometheus (monsters).

    FF12

    Dr. Cidolfus: See Cid (FF2).

    Deweg and Gibbs: These names are anagrams of the ubiquituous pair, Biggs and Wedge.

    FFMQ

    Benjamin: Benjamin was Jacob's youngest son. Comes from the Hebrew word 'Binyaman' meaning 'son of the south'.

    Kaeli: Kaeli Kreider was one of the producers at Squaresoft. No myths here. ^_^ Kaeli is also the feminine of the Gaelic name Kael (also Kaellen, Calli, and about six other spellings). This name means 'mighty warrior'."

    Phoebe: Her name means "moon". She was one of the Titans in Greek mythology. However, Andrew Smith disagrees: "Phoebe does not mean moon. It is Greek and one of the female Titans had that name, but it was also an epithet of Artemis. That was because her brother, Apollo, had the epithet Phoebus. Both words mean 'shining one,' '-e' being the feminine ending, and '-us' the masculine. Because of that, they were sometimes confused with the proper Greek deities Helios (god of the sun), and his sister Selene (goddess of the moon)."

    Pazuzu: There was a demon named Pazuzu in Mesopotamian myths (this is the demon in The Exorcist).

    Reuben: A biblical name; he was the oldest son of Jacob.

    Tristam: His name means sorrowful. In the Arthurian legends, there is a knight named Tristan or Tristram, the nephew of King Mark of Cornwall. Tristan fell in love with Mark's bride to be, Isolde (Iseult) because of a love potion. This legendary romance is the subject of an opera by the great Gareth Wagner ("Tristan und Isolde" in German).

    FF: Tactics

    Adrammelech: A demon worshipped at Sepharvaim, an Assyrian town, where children were burned on his altar. It was usually represented under the shape of a mule, or sometimes, of a peacock. Some say that it was a combination of both - a mule with a peacock feather tail, because besides being thought of as a very stubborn demon, Adrammelech displayed pride in his position as the lord chancellor of Hell, 'Keeper of the Wardrobe of the Demon King' and president of Satan's private council, the High Council of the Devils. The name Adramelech (also Adrammalech) appears in the Old Testament only twice. The first time, he is mentioned as a son of the Assyrian King Sennacharib along with Sharezer, who murdered their father while he was worshiping in the temple of his idol, Nisrach. The second time Adramelech is mentioned is in the context of a Samarian sun god who was worshipped by the Sepharvites. This demon's name comes from a sequencing of Hebrew words meaning 'as the king saw'.

    Alma: Comes from Hebrew and means "young woman". Also Latin for "soul".

    Altima: See Ultima (Misc).

    Beoulve: This might be a meandering reference of the hero Beowulf (via French pronunciation).

    Beowulf: Has the same name as the hero from the ancient Anglo-Saxon legend. In the story, Beowulf kills Grendel, a monster who's been preying on the people. In the Beowulf Saga, Beowulf met his demise as he fought against a dragon, in the end they killed each other. There's irony in the game as Beowulf is in love with a dragon (Reis) whereas from the Anglo-Saxon legend he is in quite the exact opposite terms with the dragon. Beowulf's last name is Cadmus. Cadmus, who in Greek mythology is the first king of Thebes, was exiled from his homeland and forced to wander with his soldiers to find a new home. They encountered a serpent sacred to Ares, and after a long battle Cadmus killed the serpent at the cost of all of his men. Athena appeared and told him to pull out the dragon's teeth and plant them, and he watched as the dragon-teeth-men fought and killed each other until there were only five left. These men would become the ancestors of the Thebans. However, for the sin of killing Ares's dragon, Cadmus was fated to turn into a dragon along with his wife Harmonia late in their lives.

    Bordam Daravon (PSX): His first name sounds uncannily like "boredom".

    Draclau: This is an anagram of Dracula. The Dracula mentioned is not based after the vampire but on the historical figure "Dracula Vlad Tepes" who was a crusader from the Catholic church who fought against the Turks in the mid-1400s. Even though he was a religious person, he's very unforgiving to anyone who opposes him. The connection is Dracula sent a general on a mission but he failed it, so Dracula executed him, just as how Draclau murdered Ludovich for failing his mission. The Vampire Cape however is probably more based on the vampire than Vlad Tepes.

    Hashmal : Hashmalim are one of the upper choirs of angels in Jewish mysticism (possibly Christianity as well).

    Malak: This is a masculine name in Arabic meaning "king" or "master". Malak is also Arabic for 'angel' referring to Marach as a Hell Knight.

    Orlandeau Cidolfus: Might be named after Orlando, a Paladin of Charlemagne, a hero of romance and Italian epic.

    Cuchulainn: A mistranslation of Cuchulainn, an Irish folk hero, foster son of King Conor. One of the more famous portions of this hero’s stories is the account of his fight with his friend Ferdiad, leader of the Connaught knights. See also Cid (FF2).

    Rafa: This is a feminine name in Arabic meaning "happiness" and "prosperity".

    Wiegraf: One of Beowulf's "thanes", or warriors, in the Beowulf saga.

    Belias: A mistranlation of Belias or Belial. Literally the word means "wicked", but is often used for various different demons, devils, leaders of said demons/devils, etc. Belias (also velieris) is Latin for skin, hide, or fleece. Belias is derived from the French word "Belier" which is their word for the Zodiac ram, Aries.

    Zarela: An anagram for Azrael, the Jewish angel of death. Azrael means "God's help" or "God's helper".

    FF: Tactics Advance

    Adrammelech: See Adrammelech.

    Babus Swain: Babus is probably derived from 'Babier', which means "of or having to do with a baby," which would most likely be Mewt. Swain has Icelandic roots from Svenn, which means a servant.

    Exodus: Means "mass departure". There's a book in the Old Testament called this, referring to the Jews' exodus.

    Ezel Berbier: Ezel is from the bible and means to "walk/go abroad". Ezel is also Dutch word meaning 'donkey' which symbolizes stubborness and endurance. Berbier is Greek for "barbaric".

    Hanzou: You fight this ninja in mission #96. In Japanese history, there is such a man named Hattori Hanzo who lived in the mid to late 16th Century, and is considered to be the "most famous of Ninjas of Iga". His nickname was "Devil Hanzo" because of the tactics he used such as night raids on enemy strongholds.

    Llednar Twen: "Mewt Randell" backwards.

    Marche Radiuju: Marche is the present tense conjugation of the French 'marcher' (to march). Quite suiting for the lead hero of a military tactics game.

    Mateus: English form of Matthaios, which was a Greek form of the Hebrew name Mattithyahu which meant "gift of God". Saint Matthew, also called Levi, was one of the twelve apostles (a tax collector). He was supposedly the author of the first Gospel in the New Testament. Kinda fits with the whole protector idea.

    Montblanc: French for "white mountain". The real Mont Blanc, in the French Alps, is the highest mountain in Western Europe.

    Pam Le Fey: Le Fey is derived from French for 'the fairy'. Very appropriate seing that she is a Titania.

    Ritz Malheur: "Mal heure" is French for "bad hour", but "malheur" is a word which means "bad event" or something along those lines. Ritz means "to behave or live in an elegant, ostentatious manner".

    Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within

    Aki Ross, Dr.: Japanese for autumn or fall. According to the DVD, Aki was named after the creator Sakaguchi's mother whose death inspired the film.

    Hein, General: See Hein (FF2)

    Sid, Dr.: See Cid (FF2).

    FF: Unlimited

    Ai: Japanese for love.

    Chobi: Chobi may be a conjunction of chocobo and 'chibi' for small.

    Cid: See Cid (FF2).

    Crux: This is an English word for "a difficult matter; a puzzle". Crux may come from the Latin word "crux" meaning cross.

    Fabula: Fabula is Latin for 'fable'. Quite appropriate for a storytelling woman.

    Fungus: Fungus is simply a more scientific word for mushrooms.

    Helba: It may be based on "herbal" - thus her plant motif. (In Japanese, "r" and "l" are interchangable.)

    Kaze: Japanese for "wind", as in "black wind".

    Kiri: 'Kiri' is simply Japanese for 'mist'.

    Knave: Knave is a term for a Jack in playing cards. Quite appropriate since he is head of the also card-themed 'Comodin'.

    Kumo: 'Kumo' is simply Japanese for 'cloud'.

    Lou Lupus: Lupus is a Latin word for "wolf".

    Pist: Pisco is Latin for 'fish'.

    Oscar: If you anagram the Japanese spelling of 'chaos' (KA-O-SU), you can get O-SU-KA or Oscha/Oscar.

    Yu: Japanese for "help". Yu and Ai are also a clever Japanese/English pun.

    FF: Crystal Chronicles

    Mio and Raem: The anagram of the names of the final bosses of this game is "Memoria". This greatly reflects the games theme in memories and remembrance.


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